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‣ Evolução da mortalidade infantil, segundo óbitos evitáveis: macrorregiões de saúde do Estado de Santa Catarina, 1997-2008; Describing infant mortality rate according to death avoidance: Santa Catarina, 1997 2008

Pacheco, Clarice Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/01/2011 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: A busca do entendimento das causas da mortalidade humana está relacionada diretamente ao conhecimento das condições de vida de uma população. Reduzir a mortalidade de crianças é uma das principais metas das políticas de saúde para a infância em todos os países. No Brasil, apesar da redução da mortalidade infantil (MI) observada nos últimos anos, existem, porém, grandes diferenciais do CMI entre algumas populações. OBJETIVO: Estudar a evolução da mortalidade infantil no Estado de Santa Catarina e a tendência de queda dos óbitos infantis evitáveis nas nove Macrorregiões Estaduais de Saúde do Estado, no período de 1997- 2008. METODOLOGIA: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais com cálculo e análise do CMI, segundo componentes e critérios de evitabilidade para óbitos ocorridos nas nove Macrorregiões catarinenses, no período entre 1997-2008. Foram analisadas, por regressão linear simples, as médias trianuais dos óbitos evitáveis, segundo Macrorregiões, no mesmo período. RESULTADOS: analisados 15.146 óbitos ocorridos no primeiro ano de vida, observou-se que 51por cento , aconteceu entre 0 e 6 dias,13,8por cento entre 7 e 27 dias e 35,8por cento , de 28 a 364 dias de vida. O Estado de Santa Catarina registra um dos menores CMIs do país e apresentou queda de 27...

‣ Infant mortality rates according to socioeconoic status in a brazilian city; Mortalidade infantil e nível socioeconômico em uma cidade brasileira

Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Tomkins, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Objetivo: Informações de bancos de dados municipais podem ser usadas para o planejamento de investigações que visem reduzir as desigualdades no cuidado à saúde. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a distribuição da mortalidade infantil, segundo uma classificação geoeconômica urbana, usando dados coletados rotineiramente em nível municipal. Métodos: Todos os nascidos vivos (42.381 crianças) e todos os óbitos de menores de um ano de idade (731 casos), ocorridos no período entre 1994 e 1998 em Ribeirão Preto, SP, foram considerados para este estudo. Quatro diferentes áreas geoeconômicas foram definidas de acordo com a renda do chefe de família em cada zona administrativa urbana. Resultados: As taxas de mortalidade infantil e de seus componentes neonatal e pós-neonatal, entre 1994 e 1998, apresentaram queda em Ribeirão Preto (χ2 para tendência, p<0,05). Essas taxas relacionaram-se inversamente à distribuição de baixos salários (menor do que cinco salários-mínimos por chefe de família) nas diversas regiões urbanas (χ2 para tendência, p<0,05). A área mais pobre da cidade apresentou contínuo acréscimo de excesso de mortalidade infantil nesse período. Conclusões: Os resultados demonstram que as áreas pobres da cidade de Ribeirão Preto apresentam taxas de mortalidade infantil mais elevadas quando comparadas com áreas mais privilegiadas. O nível de desigualdade social urbana...

‣ Infant mortality trends in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1994-2004 : a multilevel analysis of individual and community risk factors; Tendência da mortalidade infantil no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1994-2004 : uma análise multinível de fatores de risco individuais e contextuais

Zanini, Roselaine Ruviaro; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Riboldi, João
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in infant mortality rates in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1994 to 2004, in a longitudinal ecological study, by means of panel data analysis and multilevel linear regression (two levels: microregion and time) to estimate factors associated with infant mortality. The infant mortality rate decreased from 19.2‰ (1994) to 13.7‰ (2004) live births, and the principal causes of death in the last five years were perinatal conditions (54.1%). Approximately 47% of the variation in mortality occurred in the microregions, and a 10% increase in coverage by the Family Health Program was associated with a 1‰ reduction in infant mortality. A 10% increase in the poverty rate was associated with a 2.1‰ increase in infant deaths. Infant mortality was positively associated with the proportion of low birthweight newborns and the number of hospital beds per thousand inhabitants and negatively associated with the cesarean rate and number of hospitals per 100 thousand inhabitants. The findings suggest that individual and community variables display significant effects on the reduction of infant mortality rates.

‣ Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

Carvalho,Renata Alves da Silva; Santos,Victor Santana; Melo,Cláudia Moura de; Gurgel,Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira,Cristiane Costa da Cunha
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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67.977827%
OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting. METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test. RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions. CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue.

‣ Infant mortality trends in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1994-2004: a multilevel analysis of individual and community risk factors

Zanini,Roselaine Ruviaro; Moraes,Anaelena Bragança de; Giugliani,Elsa Regina Justo; Riboldi,João
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.96247%
The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in infant mortality rates in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1994 to 2004, in a longitudinal ecological study, by means of panel data analysis and multilevel linear regression (two levels: microregion and time) to estimate factors associated with infant mortality. The infant mortality rate decreased from 19.2‰ (1994) to 13.7‰ (2004) live births, and the principal causes of death in the last five years were perinatal conditions (54.1%). Approximately 47% of the variation in mortality occurred in the microregions, and a 10% increase in coverage by the Family Health Program was associated with a 1‰ reduction in infant mortality. A 10% increase in the poverty rate was associated with a 2.1‰ increase in infant deaths. Infant mortality was positively associated with the proportion of low birthweight newborns and the number of hospital beds per thousand inhabitants and negatively associated with the cesarean rate and number of hospitals per 100 thousand inhabitants. The findings suggest that individual and community variables display significant effects on the reduction of infant mortality rates.

‣ Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight

Barría-Pailaquilén,René Mauricio; Mendoza-Maldonado,Yessy; Urrutia-Toro,Yohana; Castro-Mora,Cristian; Santander-Manríquez,Gema
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
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The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at <32 weeks and <1500g was calculated, establishing causes of death and evaluating its relation with specific interventions, such as the use of surfactant and antenatal corticoids. Since the year 2000, infant mortality rates have stopped their decrease in comparison to the preceding decade and the gap between national and local rates before 2000 was drastically reduced. Mortality at <32 weeks and <1500g varied between 88‰ and 200‰ of liveborns, emphasizing respiratory distress as the main cause of death. The use of corticoids and surfactant was in line with reductions in mortality rates.

‣ Aggregate Income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing World

Baird, Sarah; Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The diffusion of cost-effective life saving technologies has reduced infant mortality in much of the developing world. Income gains may also play a direct, protective role in ensuring child survival, although the empirical findings to date on this issue have been mixed. This paper assembles data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 59 countries to analyze the relationship between changes in per capita GDP and infant mortality. The authors show that there is a strong, negative association between changes in per capita GDP and infant mortality- in a first-differenced specification the implied elasticity of infant mortality with respect to per capita GDP is approximately -0.56. In addition to this central result, two findings are noteworthy. First, although there is some evidence of changes in the composition of women giving birth during economic upturns and downturns, the observed changes in infant mortality are not a result of mothers with protective characteristics timing fertility to correspond with the business cycle. Second...

‣ Drinking Water Salinity and Infant Mortality in Coastal Bangladesh

Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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Bangladesh, with two-thirds of its land area less than five meters above sea level, is one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world. Low-lying coastal districts along the Bay of Bengal are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, tidal flooding, storm surges, and climate-induced increases in soil and water salinity. This paper investigates the impact of drinking water salinity on infant mortality in coastal Bangladesh. It focuses on the salinity of drinking water consumed during pregnancy, which extensive medical research has linked to maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and post-partum morbidity and mortality. The study combines spatially-formatted salinity measures for 2001-09 provided by Bangladesh with individual and household survey information from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys for 2004 and 2007. It uses probit and logit analyses to estimate mortality probability for infants less than two months old. Controlling for many other determinants of infant mortality, the analysis finds high significance for salinity exposure during the last month of pregnancy and no significance for exposure during the preceding months. The estimated impact of salinity on infant mortality is comparable in magnitude to the estimated effects of traditionally-cited variables such as maternal age and education...

‣ Infant mortality: comparison between two birth cohorts from Southeast and Northeast, Brazil

Ribeiro,Valdinar S; Silva,Antônio A M; Barbieri,Marco A; Bettiol,Heloisa; Aragão,Vânia M F; Coimbra,Liberata C; Alves,Maria T S S B
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To obtain population estimates and profile risk factors for infant mortality in two birth cohorts and compare them among cities of different regions in Brazil. METHODS: In Ribeirão Preto, southeast Brazil, infant mortality was determined in a third of hospital live births (2,846 singleton deliveries) in 1994. In São Luís, northeast Brazil, data were obtained using systematic sampling of births stratified by maternity unit (2,443 singleton deliveries) in 1997-1998. Mothers answered standardized questionnaires shortly after delivery and information on infant deaths was retrieved from hospitals, registries and the States Health Secretarys' Office. The relative risk (RR) was estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In São Luís, the infant mortality rate was 26.6/1,000 live births, the neonatal mortality rate was 18.4/1,000 and the post-neonatal mortality rate was 8.2/1,000, all higher than those observed in Ribeirão Preto (16.9, 10.9 and 6.0 per 1,000, respectively). Adjusted analysis revealed that previous stillbirths (RR=3.67 vs 4.13) and maternal age <18 years (RR=2.62 vs 2.59) were risk factors for infant mortality in the two cities. Inadequate prenatal care (RR=2.00) and male sex (RR=1.79) were risk factors in São Luís only...

‣ Infant mortality rates according to socioeconomic status in a Brazilian city

Goldani,Marcelo Zubaran; Barbieri,Marco Antonio; Bettiol,Heloisa; Barbieri,Marisa Ramos; Tomkins,Andrew
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Data from municipal databases can be used to plan interventions aimed at reducing inequities in health care. The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of infant mortality according to an urban geoeconomic classification using routinely collected municipal data. METHODS: All live births (total of 42,381) and infant deaths (total of 731) that occurred between 1994 and 1998 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were considered. Four different geoeconomic areas were defined according to the family head's income in each administrative urban zone. RESULTS: The trends for infant mortality rate and its different components, neonatal mortality rate and post-neonatal mortality rate, decreased in Ribeirão Preto from 1994 to 1998 (chi-square for trend, p<0.05). These rates were inversely correlated with the distribution of lower salaries in the geoeconomic areas (less than 5 minimum wages per family head), in particular the post-neonatal mortality rate (chi-square for trend, p<0.05). Finally, the poor area showed a steady increase in excess infant mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that infant mortality rates are associated with social inequality and can be monitored using municipal databases. The findings also suggest an increase in the impact of social inequality on infant health in Ribeirão Preto...

‣ Infant mortality due to perinatal causes in Brazil: trends, regional patterns and possible interventions

Victora,Cesar Gomes; Barros,Fernando Celso
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
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CONTEXT: Brazilian infant and child mortality levels are not compatible with the country's economic potential. In this paper, we provide a description of levels and trends in infant mortality due to perinatal causes and malformations and assess the likely impact of changing intermediate-level determinants, many of which are amenable to direct interventions through the health or related sectors. TYPE OF STUDY: Review paper. METHODS: Two main sources of mortality data were used: indirect mortality estimates based on censuses and surveys, and rates based on registered deaths. The latter were corrected for under-registration. Combination of the two sources of data allowed the estimation of cause-specific mortality rates. Data on current coverage of preventive and curative interventions were mostly obtained from the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Other national household surveys and Ministry of Health Statistics were also used. A thorough review of the Brazilian literature on levels, trends and determinants of infant mortality led to the identification of a large number of papers and books. These provided the background for the analyses of risk factors and potential interventions. RESULTS: The indirect infant mortality rate estimate for 1995-97 is of 37.5 deaths per thousand live births...

‣ A MORTALIDADE INFANTIL NO BRASIL: SÉRIE HISTÓRICA ENTRE 1994-2004 E ASSOCIAÇÃO COM INDICADORES SOCIOECONÔMICOS EM MUNICÍPIOS DE MÉDIO E GRANDE PORTE; INFANT MORTALITY IN BRAZIL: HISTORICAL SERIES FROM 1994 TO 2004 AND ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS IN MEDIUM AND LARGE MUNICIPALITIES

Fischer, Tatiana Konrad; Lima, Daniel; Rosa, Rosiléia; Osório, Denise; Boing, Antonio Fernando
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/12/2007 Português
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Modelo do estudo: trata-se de um estudo descritivo. Objetivo: descrever a série histórica da mortalidade infantil no Brasil segundo a idade do óbito e os principais grupos de causas no período de 1994 a 2004. Também foi testada a associação da mortalidade infantil com indicadores socioeconômicos nos 297 municípios brasileiros com população superior a 80 mil habitantes. Métodos: os municípios foram divididos em quartis segundo as taxas de mortalidade infantil e aplicaram-se testes ANOVA e Kruskall-Wallis para identificar possíveis diferenças entre os grupos. Também foram descritos os coeficientes de correlação de Spearman entre a variável dependente e as independentes. Os dados foram oriundos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) e do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC). Resultados: entre 1994 e 2004 houve declínio nas taxas de mortalidade infantil e alteração nos grupos de principais causas de óbitos infantis. Quando analisados apenas os municípios brasileiros de médio e grande porte, identificou-se que as taxas de mortalidade infantil apresentaram acentuada variação. Identificou-se, ainda, que todas as variáveis sócioeconômicas investigadas apresentaram correlação estatisticamente significante com a mortalidade infantil. Conclusão: políticas de atenção ao parto...

‣ Socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in Iran and across its provinces

Hosseinpoor,Ahmad Reza; Mohammad,Kazem; Majdzadeh,Reza; Naghavi,Mohsen; Abolhassani,Farid; Sousa,Angelica; Speybroeck,Niko; Jamshidi,Hamid Reza; Vega,Jeanette
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.96247%
OBJECTIVE: To measure the socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in Iran*. METHODS: We analysed data from the provincially representative Demographic and Health Survey, which was done in Iran in 2000. We used a dichotomous hierarchical ordered probit model to develop an indicator of socioeconomic status of households. We assessed the inequality in infant mortality by using the odds ratio of infant mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic quintiles at both the provincial and national levels, and the concentration index, an inequality measure based on the entire socioeconomic distribution. RESULTS: We found a decreasing trend in the infant mortality rate in relation to socioeconomic quintiles. The poorest to richest odds ratio was 2.34 (95% CI = 1.78-3.09). The concentration index of infant mortality in Iran was -0.1789 (95% CI = -0.2193--0.1386). Furthermore, the inequality of infant mortality between the lowest and highest quintiles was significant and favoured the better-off in most of the provinces. However, this inequality varied between provinces. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality favours the better-off in the country as a whole and in most of its provinces...

‣ Infant mortality in Pelotas, Brazil: a comparison of risk factors in two birth cohorts

Menezes,Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal,Pedro Curi; Santos,Iná Silva dos; Victora,Cesar Gomes; Barros,Fernando Celso
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: To compare two population-based birth cohorts to assess trends in infant mortality rates and the distribution of relevant risk factors, and how these changed after an 11-year period. METHODS: Data from two population-based prospective birth cohorts (1982 and 1993) were analyzed. Both studies included all children born in a hospital (> 99% of all births) in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Infant mortality was monitored through surveillance of all maternity hospitals, mortality registries and cemeteries. RESULTS: There were 5 914 live-born children in 1982 and 5 249 in 1993. The infant mortality rate decreased by 41%, from 36.0 per 1 000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 per 1 000 in 1993. Socioeconomic and maternal factors tended to become more favorable during the study period, but there were unfavorable changes in birthweight and gestational age. Poverty, high parity, low birthweight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction were the main risk factors for infant mortality in both cohorts. The 41% reduction in infant mortality between 1982 and 1993 would have been even greater had the prevalence of risk factors remained constant during the period studied here. CONCLUSIONS: There were impressive declines in infant mortality which were not due to changes in the risk factors we studied. Because no reduction was seen in the large social inequalities documented in the 1982 cohort...

‣ Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal

Katz,Joanne; West Jr,Keith P.; Khatry,Subarna K.; Christian,Parul; LeClerq,Steven C.; Pradhan,Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha,Sharada Ram
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2003 Português
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OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15 469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR =1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR =1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid_upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43...

‣ Infant mortality trends in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1994-2004: a multilevel analysis of individual and community risk factors

Zanini,Roselaine Ruviaro; Moraes,Anaelena Bragança de; Giugliani,Elsa Regina Justo; Riboldi,João
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.96247%
The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in infant mortality rates in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1994 to 2004, in a longitudinal ecological study, by means of panel data analysis and multilevel linear regression (two levels: microregion and time) to estimate factors associated with infant mortality. The infant mortality rate decreased from 19.2‰ (1994) to 13.7‰ (2004) live births, and the principal causes of death in the last five years were perinatal conditions (54.1%). Approximately 47% of the variation in mortality occurred in the microregions, and a 10% increase in coverage by the Family Health Program was associated with a 1‰ reduction in infant mortality. A 10% increase in the poverty rate was associated with a 2.1‰ increase in infant deaths. Infant mortality was positively associated with the proportion of low birthweight newborns and the number of hospital beds per thousand inhabitants and negatively associated with the cesarean rate and number of hospitals per 100 thousand inhabitants. The findings suggest that individual and community variables display significant effects on the reduction of infant mortality rates.

‣ Infant mortality: comparison between two birth cohorts from Southeast and Northeast, Brazil

Ribeiro,Valdinar S; Silva,Antônio A M; Barbieri,Marco A; Bettiol,Heloisa; Aragão,Vânia M F; Coimbra,Liberata C; Alves,Maria T S S B
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.030825%
OBJECTIVE: To obtain population estimates and profile risk factors for infant mortality in two birth cohorts and compare them among cities of different regions in Brazil. METHODS: In Ribeirão Preto, southeast Brazil, infant mortality was determined in a third of hospital live births (2,846 singleton deliveries) in 1994. In São Luís, northeast Brazil, data were obtained using systematic sampling of births stratified by maternity unit (2,443 singleton deliveries) in 1997-1998. Mothers answered standardized questionnaires shortly after delivery and information on infant deaths was retrieved from hospitals, registries and the States Health Secretarys' Office. The relative risk (RR) was estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In São Luís, the infant mortality rate was 26.6/1,000 live births, the neonatal mortality rate was 18.4/1,000 and the post-neonatal mortality rate was 8.2/1,000, all higher than those observed in Ribeirão Preto (16.9, 10.9 and 6.0 per 1,000, respectively). Adjusted analysis revealed that previous stillbirths (RR=3.67 vs 4.13) and maternal age <18 years (RR=2.62 vs 2.59) were risk factors for infant mortality in the two cities. Inadequate prenatal care (RR=2.00) and male sex (RR=1.79) were risk factors in São Luís only...

‣ Correlation of Cesarean rates to maternal and infant mortality rates: an ecologic study of official international data

Volpe,Fernando Madalena
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To correlate international official data on Cesarean delivery rates to infant and maternal mortality rates and low weight-at-birth rates; and to test the hypothesis that Cesarean rates greater than 15% correlate to higher maternal and infant mortality rates. METHODS: Analyses were based on the most recent official data (2000-2009) available for 193 countries. Exponential models were compared to quadratic models to regress infant mortality rates, neonatal mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, and low weight-at-birth rates to Cesarean rates. Separate regressions were performed for countries with Cesarean rates greater than 15%. RESULTS: In countries with Cesarean rates less than 15%, higher Cesarean rates were associated to lower infant, neonatal, and maternal mortality rates, and to lower rates of low weightat-birth. In countries with Cesarean rates greater than 15%, Cesarean rates were not significantly associated with infant or maternal mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: There is an inverse exponential relation between countries' rates of Cesarean deliveries and infant or maternal mortality rates. Very low Cesarean rates (less than 15%) are associated with poorer maternal and child outcomes. Cesarean rates greater than 15% were neither correlated to higher maternal nor child mortality...

‣ Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

Carvalho,Renata Alves da Silva; Santos,Victor Santana; Melo,Cláudia Moura de; Gurgel,Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira,Cristiane Costa da Cunha
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting.METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test.RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions.CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue.

‣ Infant mortality rates according to socioeconomic status in a Brazilian city

Goldani,Marcelo Zubaran; Barbieri,Marco Antonio; Bettiol,Heloisa; Barbieri,Marisa Ramos; Tomkins,Andrew
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Data from municipal databases can be used to plan interventions aimed at reducing inequities in health care. The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of infant mortality according to an urban geoeconomic classification using routinely collected municipal data. METHODS: All live births (total of 42,381) and infant deaths (total of 731) that occurred between 1994 and 1998 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were considered. Four different geoeconomic areas were defined according to the family head's income in each administrative urban zone. RESULTS: The trends for infant mortality rate and its different components, neonatal mortality rate and post-neonatal mortality rate, decreased in Ribeirão Preto from 1994 to 1998 (chi-square for trend, p<0.05). These rates were inversely correlated with the distribution of lower salaries in the geoeconomic areas (less than 5 minimum wages per family head), in particular the post-neonatal mortality rate (chi-square for trend, p<0.05). Finally, the poor area showed a steady increase in excess infant mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that infant mortality rates are associated with social inequality and can be monitored using municipal databases. The findings also suggest an increase in the impact of social inequality on infant health in Ribeirão Preto...