Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia

O Centro Comum de Pesquisa, mais conhecido por JRC - Joint Research Centre, é uma Diretoria Geral da Comissão Européia localizada em Bruxelas, na Bélgica. Possui a função de prover assessoria técnica e científica à Comissão Européia.

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‣ Scoping investigations on the release of metals from the rim area of decorated articles (in support of the revision of Ceramic Directive 84/500/EEC)

PELTZER MERCEDES ANA; BELDI Giorgia; JAKUBOWSKA NATALIA; SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
In the present work, the release of metals from 14 samples (9 industrial samples, 2 ad-hoc manufactured ceramic cups and 3 ad-hoc manufactured glasses) was investigated in order to provide underpinning data on migration of metals under different conditions from different samples. The rim area was tested using 2 different approaches (wine and a wine-simulating acidic liquid, i.e 4% aqueous acetic acid). The test using the simulant acetic acid 4% (AA4%) was further investigated using two different protocols (with and without the use of paraffin wax). The release of metals from glass samples were also studied into white wine as benchmark food. All the samples tested in this study released Pb. It was also possible to detect limited release of Cd and other metals from the rim area of decorated articles. It was observed that the release of Pb, Cd and other metals generally decreased in successive migrations. Highly decorated articles with very bright colours led to a greater release of metals. The release of elements from test articles into white wine was always lower than that into acidic simulants. The testing using citric acid at higher temperature and shorter time was not significantly more severe than that using acetic acid 4% and depended on the metals considered and potential damage of the heterogeneous decoration of the articles during the exposure. Overglaze decorated samples were more sensitive to exposure to food simulants and released metals to a greater extent than test articles with underglaze decorations. The use of melted paraffin wax on the non-rim area may gave lower migration of metals into food simulants and thus might be more realistic...

‣ EU Petroleum Refining Fitness Check: OURSE Modelling and Results

TEMURSHOEV UMED; MRAZ MARIAN; DELGADO SANCHO Luis; EDER Peter
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
The OURSE (Oil is Used in Refineries to Supply Energy) model is used to assess ex post the likely impact on the performance and international competitiveness of the EU refineries of the main EU legislation included in the EU Petroleum Refining Fitness Check (REFIT) study. Given the (dis)similar nature of the immediate (i.e. direct) impact mechanisms of the legislation acts on refining industry, the considered directives were grouped into the following three (broader) categories for modelling purposes: 1. Fuel quality specifications change due to the Fuels Quality Directive (FQD) and Marine Fuels Directive (MFD); 2. Demand levels and composition change due to the requirements of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Energy Taxation Directive (ETD); and 3. Sulphur dioxide emissions limits change as implied by the requirements of the Large Combustion Plants Directive (LCPD), Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPCD) and Air Quality Directive (AQD).; JRC.J.5-Sustainable Production and Consumption

‣ CERTIFICATION REPORT A set of three plasmid DNA calibration solutions bearing a porcine-specific DNA fragment Certified Reference Materials: ERM®-AD483a, ERM®-AD483b, ERM®-AD483c

MATRAI JANKA; CORBISIER Philippe; MAZOUA Stephane; KORTEKAAS Anna Maria; CHUNG PUI YAN JENNY; TRAPMANN Stefanie; EMONS Hendrik
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
This report describes the preparation and characterisation of a set of plasmid solutions, ERM-AD483a, ERM-AD483b and ERM-AD483c. The materials were produced in accordance with ISO Guide 34:2009 [1]. A DNA fragment specific for the identification of a porcine target was cloned into a pUC18 vector to construct the pIRMM-0104 plasmid. The nucleic acid sequence of the entire pIRMM-0104 plasmid was determined by dye terminator cycle sequencing. The plasmid was eluted in TElow buffer, and its concentration was measured by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Afterwards, it was gravimetrically diluted to three different concentration levels. The plasmid copy number concentration of the three concentration levels were certified by digital and droplet digital quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, dPCR and ddPCR respectively. In addition, between-unit homogeneity, as well as short-term and long-term stability was assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006 [2]. The materials are intended for the determination of a cut-off value to discriminate positive samples (containing the porcine target sequence) from negative samples by quantitative PCR as defined in the Standard Operating Procedure of the EU Reference Laboratory for Animal proteins (EURL-AP) according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 51/2013 [3...

‣ Area of Concern: A new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

RIDOUTT Bradley; PFISTER Stephan; MANZARDO Alessandro; BARE Jane; BOULAY Anne-Marie; CHERUBINI Francesco; FANKTE Peter; FRISCHNECHT Rolf; HAUSCHILD Michael; HENDERSON Andrew; JOLLIET Oliver; LEVASSEUR Annie; MARGNI Manuele; MCKONE Thomas E.; MICHELSEN Ott
Fonte: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG Publicador: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
Purpose As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplace. In response, a task force operating under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a universal footprint definition and related terminology as well as to discuss modelling implications. Methods The task force has worked from the perspective that footprints should be based on LCA methodology, underpinned by the same data systems and models as used in LCA. However, there are important differences in purpose and orientation relative to LCA impact category indicators. Footprints have a primary orientation toward society and nontechnical stakeholders. They are also typically of narrow scope, having the purpose of reporting only in relation to specific topics. In comparison, LCA has a primary orientation toward stakeholders interested in comprehensive evaluation of overall environmental performance and trade-offs among impact categories. These differences create tension between footprints...

‣ Soil threats in Europe

STOLTE Jannes; TESFAI Mehreteab; ØYGARDEN Lillian; KVÆRNØ S.; KEIZER Jacob; VERHEIJEN Frank; PANAGOS Panagiotis; BALLABIO CRISTIANO; HESSEL Rudi
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
Although there is a large body of knowledge available on soil threats in Europe, this knowledge is fragmented and incomplete, in particular regarding the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities. The main aim of RECARE is to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures using an innovative trans-disciplinary approach, actively integrating and advancing knowledge of stakeholders and scientists in 17 Case Studies, covering a range of soil threats in different bio-physical and socio-economic environments across Europe. Existing national and EU policies will be reviewed and compared to identify potential incoherence, contradictions and synergies. Policy messages will be formulated based on the Case Study results and their integration at European level. A comprehensive dissemination and communication strategy, including the development of a web-based Dissemination and Communication Hub, will accompany the other activities to ensure that project results are disseminated to a variety of stakeholders at the right time and in the appropriate formats to stimulate renewed care for European soils.; JRC.H.5-Land Resources Management

‣ Using GIS and Remote Sensing to build Master Sampling Frames for Agricultural Statistics

GALLEGO PINILLA Francisco; KERDILES Herve; LEO Olivier
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
This report is a JRC contribution to the FAO Global Strategy to improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics (GSARS). Its aim is providing guidelines on the suitable ways to use satellite images and geographic information tools to build master sampling frames that can be used both for agricultural and environmental statistics. The main readers to which the report is addressed are agricultural and environmental statisticians in developing countries. We consider separately the use of technological tools for area sampling frames and for list sampling frames. The use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), better known as GPS, is also discussed, although its use is more connected to carrying out field surveys rather than to the design of sampling frames.; JRC.H.4-Monitoring Agricultural Resources

‣ Sampling system for LUCAS 2015

GALLEGO PINILLA Francisco; PALMIERI Alessandra; RAMOS Helena
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
The sampling design of LUCAS 2015 took into account experience from previous campaigns. While remaining a Two-phase sampling scheme, efforts were focused in reducing the set of excluded points from the second phase sample, which are placed in difficult and inaccessible areas. This action was implemented both through: 1. the improvement of the first phase sample (LUCAS master sample) by updating each point of the grid with the most recent available information (NUTS borders, road network, elevation, Corine Land Cover results (CLC2006)) 2. the fine-tuning of the past rule for eligibility of the point introducing an additional new indicator of accessibility based on CLC; the final criteria combine all the auxiliary information [Elevation, Road distance, Slope, CLC indicator]. However excluded points will remain a likely source of bias which has to be treated separately from the field survey. The corresponding excluded area needs to be covered with a complementary photo-interpretation operation, including an ex-post photo-interpretation also for 2012 and 2009 surveys. Such a photo-interpretation task, although important and linked to the sampling exercise, is not addressed in this document but represents next priority for the future work.; JRC.H.4-Monitoring Agricultural Resources

‣ Nutrient Recovery by Biogas Digestate Processing

DROSG Bernhard; FUCHS Werner; AL SEADI Teodorita; MADSEN Michael; LINKE Bernd
Fonte: IEA Bioenergy Publicador: IEA Bioenergy
Tipo: Books Formato: Online
Português
This report reviews various approaches for processing of biogas plant digestate for the purpose of nutrient recovery. It covers both established and emerging technologies and assesses technical performance and where possible economics. Techniques for nutrient recovery from digestate are developing rapidly and aiming to improve nutrient management in agriculture and in waste treatment systems. The report is aimed at biogas plant developers and operators as well as agriculture policy makers and was produced by IEA Bioenergy Task 37. IEA Bioenergy Task 37 addresses challenges related to the economic and environmental sustainability of biogas production and utilisation.; JRC.F.8-Sustainable Transport

‣ A set of three plasmid DNA calibration solutions bearing a ruminant-specific DNA fragment Certified Reference Materials: ERM-AD482a,ERM-AD482b, ERM-AD482c

CORBISIER Philippe; MATRAI JANKA; MAZOUA Stephane; KORTEKAAS Anna Maria; CHUNG PUI YAN JENNY; SCARAVELLI Elena; TRAPMANN Stefanie; EMONS Hendrik
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
This report describes the preparation and characterisation of a set of three plasmid solutions, ERM-AD482a, ERM-AD482b and ERM-AD482c. The material was produced in accordance with ISO Guide 34:2009 [1]. A DNA fragment specific for the identification of ruminant meat was cloned into a pUC18 vector to construct the pIRMM-0103 plasmid. The nucleic acid sequence of the entire pIRMM-0103 plasmid was determined by dye terminator cycle sequencing applying the primer walking method on the entire plasmid. The plasmid was put into a solution and its concentration was measured by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Afterwards this solution was gravimetrically diluted to obtain three different plasmid concentration levels. The plasmid copy number concentration of the three concentration levels were certified by digital quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods (dPCR). In addition, between-unit homogeneity, as well as short-term long-term and freeze-thaw stability was assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006 [2]. The materials are intended for the determination of a cut-off value to discriminate positive samples (containing the ruminant target sequence) from negative samples by quantitative PCR as defined in the Standard Operating Procedure of the EU Reference Laboratory for animal proteins (EURL-AP) according to Commission Regulation No 51/2013 [3...

‣ European Parliament Preparatory Action: "Actual and desired state of the economic potential in regions outside the Greek capital Athens" Final Report

BODEN John Mark; DOS SANTOS PATRICE HENRY; HAEGEMAN Karel; MARINELLI ELISABETTA; VALERO BONED SUSANA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
This is the final report of the European Parliament Preparatory Action: "Actual and desired state of the economic potential in regions outside the Greek capital Athens" (hereafter Preparatory Action or PA). It reviews the key activities of this preparatory action, its impacts, the remaining barriers to RIS3 implementation and presents a perspective on the way forward. Providing hands-on support to the refinement and implementation of the RIS3 strategy in the Greek Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (REMTh) has entailed the following activities: • Mutual learning: this has at core element of the preparatory action, and has offered a unique opportunity to all the stakeholders involved to share experiences and build a common understanding of RIS3, its potential and the real challenges to its implementation. • Optimisation of the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process (EDP) – the design, implementation and adaptation of a systematic participatory methodology for the EDP, centred on thematic focus groups. These events enabled the generation and articulation of innovation ideas and initiated the first necessary steps towards concrete projects. • Capacity building - two dedicated working groups were organised: one centred on issues of human resources mobility and one on RIS3 governance. Relevant stakeholders...

‣ Potential for ecosystem service provision in less favoured agricultural areas compared to other agricultural areas in the European Union

HAGYO ANDREA; TERRES Jean; PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa
Fonte: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability Publicador: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
The new Biodiversity Strategy of the EU (European Commission, 2011) aims to halt the loss of biodiversity and also the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020. As it has been proved that focusing only at protected areas and species is not enough, semi-natural and agricultural land are also targeted in the strategy. (Maes et al., 2011) Though the effects of extensive agricultural activity are complex and local nature conservation objectives and trade-offs between different ecosystem services have to be taken into account (Fors et al., 2012), good management practices may turn trade-offs into opportunities and can maintain ecosystem functions (Power, 2010). Our aim was to compare the capacity of less favoured agricultural areas for delivering various ecosystem services to other (more productive) agricultural areas at EU level. Less favoured areas are distinguished based on an EU scheme, ‘less favoured areas’ (LFA, Articles of Council Regulation (EC) 1305/2013) which designates areas where agricultural production or activity is more difficult because of natural handicaps and therefore there is a significant risk of agricultural land abandonment.; JRC.H.4-Monitoring Agricultural Resources

‣ Measuring the importance of variables in composite indicators

BECKER WILLIAM EDWARD; SAISANA Michaela; PARUOLO PAOLO; Saltelli A.
Fonte: CUEC Editrice by Sardegna Novamedia Publicador: CUEC Editrice by Sardegna Novamedia
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
The importance of input variables to composite indicators is measured using the nonlinear Pearson correlation ratio, as a guide how the weights assigned actually affect the output. The correlation ratio is estimated using local-linear regression and penalised splines. The approach is demonstrated on a case study, the Resource Governance Index, in which it is concluded that the importance of input variables does not appear to reflect the intentions of the developers. Overall, the approach can be used to adjust the weights of composite indicators to more closely reflect the intentions of developers.; JRC.DDG.01-Econometrics and applied statistics

‣ Best practices and informal guidance on how to implement the Comprehensive Assessment at Member State level

JAKUBCIONIS MINDAUGAS; SANTAMARIA BELDA MARTA; KAVVADIAS KONSTANTINOS; PIERS DE RAVESCHOOT RONALD; GUTIERREZ MOLES CARMEN; CARLSSON Johan
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
This report details a methodology for performing a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) identifying the most resource and cost-efficient solutions to meet heating and cooling demands for a given country or region in accordance with Article 14(3) and taking in account Part 1 of Annex IX of the of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) (EC, 2012). The methodology includes guidelines how to: (1) collect data about energy consumption and supply points needed to construct heat maps, (2) how to identify system boundaries, (3) assess the technical potential that can be satisfied by efficient technical solutions, including high efficiency cogeneration, micro-cogeneration and efficient district-heating and cooling. (4) define baseline and alternative scenarios, including quantifying the cost and benefits of both scenarios. This comprises for example the economic value of other effects is estimated, mainly, the changes in socio-economic and environmental factors. Cost-Benefit Analyses integrate all costs and benefits over a long period are integrated in a unique estimate, the Net Present Value, which provides information about the net change of welfare derived from the implementation of the different heating and cooling scenarios. In the end, the cost-benefit analyses shall provide information about which are the most cost-efficient solutions to meet the heating and cooling needs of a country or a region.; JRC.F.6-Energy Technology Policy Outlook

‣ Market Integration Scheme of a Multi-Terminal HVDC Grid in the North Seas

CHONDROGIANNIS STAMATIOS; PONCELA BLANCO MARTA
Fonte: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC Publicador: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
The development of a Multi-Terminal (MT) High Voltage DC (HVDC) Grid based on Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology has been envisaged as a key development for harnessing the vast offshore wind production potential of the North Seas. In this paper, market integration of a Centrally Dispatched MT HVDC Grid based on droop control is examined. Particular emphasis is given on the management of onshore imbalance volumes due to offshore wind power forecast errors. The economic importance of the control choices of the Operator of such an active transmission grid is highlighted, and regulatory implications are briefly discussed. The main contribution of the paper is the coherent development of a droop-controlled MT HVDC Grid scheme that integrates Optimal Power Flow (OPF) dispatch, and imbalance volume management.; JRC.F.3-Energy Security, Systems and Market

‣ Monitoring cultural and creative activities and their impact in European cities’ development: Challenges and the way forward

STANO PAWEL; WEZIAK-BIALOWOLSKA DOROTA; SAISANA Michaela
Fonte: Athens Institute for Education and Research Publicador: Athens Institute for Education and Research
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Cultural and creative sectors (CCS) in Europe have shown strong resilience to the recent economic crisis and they are expected to expand further due to their function as forerunners in digital innovation. The creative population is one of Europe’s key strength and the CCS, which are the 3rd biggest employer in the EU, have a strategic role to play in the economic recovery, especially in providing jobs and career opportunities to young Europeans who have been hard-hit by the recent slow-down. The cities with the highest concentration of the creative employment have proven to be the most resilient during the post-2008 turmoil, thus making them a focus of the national and regional policies. Over the last years composite indicators have gained recognition as comprehensive monitoring tools that support evidence-based urban policies and corporate strategies. Consequently, a plethora of city indices that capture aspects related to cultural or creative activities have been developed to suit the needs of specific audience. Nevertheless, there exists no single index describing the CCS that is accepted by the majority. To fill the gaps in the existing measures we aim at creating an index summarizing the CCS in a way that is of added value to EU policy makers and to urban planners interested in fostering the development of creativity and diversity. In this paper we present the main challenges faced during the construction process...

‣ Chapter 9: Social Capital and Smoking

ROCCO Lorenzo; D'HOMBRES Beatrice
Fonte: World Scientific Publicador: World Scientific
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
The analysis of the relationship between social capital and smoking, and more generally between social capital and health-related behaviors, has been so far the only attempt of studying one specific channel of transmission of the beneficial influence of social capital on individual health. Health-related behaviors are crucial inputs for individual health and they might convey a substantial proportion of the overall beneficial influence of social capital on health. However, although we generally observe in the literature that higher social capital induces more health-responsible behaviors (Lindström, 2003; Lundborg, 2005), we are not able to distinguish between the alternative mechanisms that might be at work behind this relation. In other words, we do not have a clear idea of why social capital induces more health-responsible behaviors. In the empirical literature only reduced form models have been estimated with the majority of studies being devoted to the relationship between either social capital and smoking, or social capital and alcohol and/or cannabis use. This chapter aims at going beyond reduced forms and explicitly explores one potential mechanism underlying the negative relationship between social capital and smoking behavior. Specifically...

‣ Applications of Dynamic Trees to Sensitivity Analysis

BECKER WILLIAM EDWARD
Fonte: UBC Library Publicador: UBC Library
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
A recent approach to surrogate modelling, called dynamic trees, uses regression trees to partition the input space, and fits simple constant or linear models in each “leaf” (region of the input space). This article aims to investigate the applicability of dynamic trees in sensitivity analysis, in particular on high dimensional problems at low sample size, to see whether they can be applied to dimensionalities usually out of the range of surrogate models. Comparisons are made with Gaussian processes, as well as three measures based on a radial sampling scheme: the Monte Carlo estimator of the total sensitivity index, an elementary effects measure, and a derivative-based sensitivity measure. The results show that the radial sampling measures generally outperform the surrogate models tested here, with the exception of response surfaces that feature discontinuities.; JRC.DDG.01-Econometrics and applied statistics

‣ Social capital and smoking behavior

ROCCO Lorenzo; D'HOMBRES Beatrice
Fonte: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN LTD Publicador: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN LTD
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
In this paper, we explore one mechanism that may underlie the negative relationship between social capital and smoking: whether social capital strengthens the effect of anti-smoking regulations. We use data on smoking behaviors collected immediately before and after the implementation of smoking bans in public places in Germany in order to determine whether the impact of these bans on smoking prevalence and intensity is greater among individuals richer in social capital. We find that smoking bans reduce both smoking prevalence and intensity mainly among men and that individual social capital strengthens the effect of the bans.; JRC.DDG.01-Econometrics and applied statistics

‣ Regional ICT Innovation in the European Union: Prioritization and Performance (2008-2012)

KLEIBRINK ALEXANDER; NIEHAVES Björn; PALOP Pau; SORVIK JENS OSKAR; THAPA Basanta E.p.
Fonte: SPRINGER VERLAG Publicador: SPRINGER VERLAG
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
In the current programming period, European Union (EU) regions and member states that want to use Regional Development Funds (ERDF) are required to develop innovation strategies for smart specialization (RIS3) based on the idea of rational strategic management. In order to explore the relationship between strategic policy design and policy performance, this article maps regional strategies for information and communication technologies (ICT) and their effects in the period 2008- 2012. Furthermore, it generates suggestions for relevant case studies. We first conduct a quantitative analysis of the effects of ICT strategies and ERDF expenditure on regional ICT performance in Western European regions. ICT is a relevant priority for many regions and it reflects EU priorities fostering ICT activities through regional development funds. Second, we propose a framework to categorise EU regions in the context of ICT policy based on the expected distribution of regional ICT performance. Our analysis covers 97 regions in 9 EU member states, out of which 29 have a dedicated ICT strategy. In line with ideas of rational strategic management, our working hypothesis states that regions with a dedicated strategy should display better performance. However...

‣ Investigating efficiency of non-linear wave modulation spectroscopy for early detection of critical buckling damages in sandwich composite panels

CHRYSOCHOIDIS NIKOLAOS; GUTIERREZ TENREIRO EUGENIO GERARDO
Fonte: DEStech Publications, Inc Publicador: DEStech Publications, Inc
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
This work presents experimental investigations into the potential of using, piezo-actuated, ultrasound waves for the detection of damage or incipient failure in fibre-reinforced sandwich panels under compressive axial load. Two methodologies are applied based on (i) frequency modulation spectroscopy and (ii) single-mode resonance shifting. Sensitivity of the techniques is studied during the loading till the failure of the specimens and also post failure. Representative measurements for both approaches are presented and discussed herein.; JRC.G.4-European laboratory for structural assessment