Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia

O Centro Comum de Pesquisa, mais conhecido por JRC - Joint Research Centre, é uma Diretoria Geral da Comissão Européia localizada em Bruxelas, na Bélgica. Possui a função de prover assessoria técnica e científica à Comissão Européia.

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‣ Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

WORBS Sylvia; SKIBA M; SÖDERSTRÖM Martin; RAPINOJA Marja-Leena; ZELENY Reinhard; RUSSMANN Heiko; SCHIMMEL Heinz; VANNINEN Paula; FREDRIKSSON Sten-Åke; DORNER Brigitte
Fonte: MDPI AG Publicador: MDPI AG
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures ricin gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin as threat agent from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic, but highly homologous protein also contained in Ricinus communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by capillary gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, LC-ESI MS and MALDI TOF approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. The purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin as well as RCA120 were unambiguously identified and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.; JRC.D.2-Standards for Innovation and sustainable Development

‣ Practical guidelines on the application of migration modelling for the estimation of specific migration

BRANDSCH Rainer; DEQUATRE Claude; MERCEA Peter; MILANA Maria Rosaria; STOERMER Angela; TRIER Xenia; VITRAC Olivier; SCHAEFER Annette; SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
The aim of this practical guidance document is to assist the users of the described diffusion models to predict conservative, upper bound specific migration values from plastic food contact materials for compliance purposes. Explanatory guidance tables and practical examples of migration modelling are provided. This document is an updated version of the report "Estimation of specific migration by generally recognised diffusion models in support of EU Directive 2002/72/EC" (Simoneau, 2010) concerning the current legal basis (Regulation (EU) No 10/2011) and the use of migration models for the estimation of specific migration from plastic multi-layers. This document represents the current validity of the models based on constant periodical evaluations of new experimental migration data performed by the Task Force on Migration Modelling chaired by the Directorate General Joint Research Centre of the European Commission on behalf of Directorate General Health and Consumers. The members of the Task Force are R. Brandsch, C. Dequatre, E.J. Hoekstra, P. Mercea, M.R. Milana, A. Schäfer, C. Simoneau, A. Störmer, X. Trier and O. Vitrac.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

‣ Nanofiltration and nanostructured membranes – should they be considered nanotechnology or not?

MUELLER Nicole; VAN DER BRUGGEN Bart; KEUTER Volkmar; LUIS Patricia; MELIN Thomas; PRONK Wouter; REISEWITZ Robert; RICKERBY David; RIOS Gilbert; WENNEKES Wilco; NOWACK Bernd
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
Nanofiltration is frequently associated with nanotechnology - obviously because of its name. However, the term “nano” in nanofiltration refers - according to the definition of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) - to the size of the particles rejected and not to a nanostructure as defined by the International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO) in the mem-brane. Evidently, the approach to standardisation of materials differs significantly between mem-brane technology and nanotechnology which leads to considerable confusion and inconsistent use of the terminology. There are membranes that can be unambiguously attributed to both membrane technology and nanotechnology such as those that are functionalized with nanoparti-cles, while the classification of hitherto considered to be conventional membranes as nanostruc-tured material is questionable. A driving force behind the efforts to define nanomaterials is not least the urgent need for the regulation of the use of nanomaterials. Since risk estimation is the basis for nanotechnology legislation, the risk associated with nanomaterials should also be re-flected in the underlying standards and definitions. This paper discusses the impacts of the re-cent attempts to define nanomaterials on membrane terminology in the light of risk estimations and the need for regulation.; JRC.H-Institute for Environment and Sustainability (Ispra)

‣ Research obstacles and future perpectives

RICKERBY David
Fonte: Future Science Publicador: Future Science
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Nanotechnology enabled methods for the treatment of wastewater; drinking water and contaminated groundwater offer potential benefits but also carry significant risks. There are in addition technical, financial and regulatory barriers to innovation within the water sector itself. Progress in addressing the major technical challenges has been achieved through original applications and fresh research directions. These efforts are leading to increased efficiencies in photocatalytic water treatment, membrane filtration for drinking water purification and desalination, and in-situ remediation with nano zerovalent iron. Expected impacts of nanomaterials in water treatment include reduction of waterborne diseases, together with alleviation of water scarcity and water stress.; JRC.H.6-Digital Earth and Reference Data

‣ Application of nanocrystalline metal oxide gas sensors for air quality monitoring

RICKERBY David; SKOULOUDIS Andreas
Fonte: INDERSCIENCE ENTERPRISES LTD Publicador: INDERSCIENCE ENTERPRISES LTD
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
Increasing concern regarding health effects caused by air pollution, together with the limited spatial resolution achievable with conventional monitoring stations, have driven efforts to develop inexpensive metal oxide gas sensors for air quality measurements. The sensing mechanism is dependent on physicochemical reactions between adsorbed gas molecules and oxygen species on the oxide surface, which modify the height of the grain boundary potential barrier and, thereby, the electrical resistance of the film. The sensitivity is dependent on the grain size and the influence of film structure on the electrical conductivity. A systematic study of the influence of deposition conditions on the structure of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films was carried out in an attempt to understand its relation to the conductivity with the aim of improving the sensitivity to common pollutant gases such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. Tin dioxide is the most commonly used material for gas sensor applications but also has the greatest cross sensitivity. Cross sensitivity can be reduced by the use of alternative materials such as zinc oxide, tungsten oxide, titanium dioxide or mixed metal oxides. Significant improvements in sensitivity and selectivity can be achieved by doping the oxide with a noble metal such as platinum or palladium to catalyse the reactions with adsorbed gas molecules. Solid state microsensors have been constructed by combining microelectronic fabrication methods with thin film technology. Detection of carbon monoxide...

‣ Consensus building results on the new scarcity indicator from WULCA

BOULAY Anne-Marie; BARE Jane; BENINI LORENZO; BERGER Markus; BULLE Cécile; KLEMMAYER Inga; LATHUILLIERE Michael; LOUBET Philippe; MANZARDO Alessandro; MARGNI Manuele; MOTOSHITA Masaharu; NÚÑEZ Montserrat; OKI Taikan; RIDOUTT Bradley; WORBE Sebastien; P
Fonte: SETAC Europe Publicador: SETAC Europe
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has served as a decision-support tool to help reduce environmental impacts for a few decades already. Recently, the methodology has been used to assess impacts related to water and group them in a new water footprint concept, now framed in ISO 14046:2014 (ISO, 2014). While this document provides principles, requirements and guidelines, no specific impact assessment method is recommended ,although several have emerged in the past 5 years to assess impacts from water use (Kounina et al. 2013). The need for consensus-developed and recommended methods is clear and the challenge was undertaken by the Water Use in LCA (WULCA) working group, founded under UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative in 2007. Including method developers and experts from the fields of LCA, hydrology, ecology, etc., the group is developing consensus-based indicators to assess impacts from water use, which can be used to comply with the requirements of the ISO document. This work presents the progress of the working group on the consensus method development and provide first applicable characterization factors for water use. Materials and methods WULCA commenced a new two-year activity in January 2014 aiming at developing consensus-based indicator(s) for water use impact assessment. The first steps defined a framework (based on previous WULCA deliverable (Bayart et al. 2010; Kounina et al. 2013)) and led to the identification of the three sets of indicators on which to focus: 1) The impact pathway leading to damages on human health is already modeled by different methods and ready for harmonization (Boulay et al. 2014). Hence it was included in the work and a consensus-based methodology defining this impact pathway is under development. 2) The ecosystem impact pathway includes several methodologies with possible complementary assessments (Kounina et al. 2013). A sub-group was formed to harmonize the different impact pathways in this category...

‣ Environmental impact assessment of sustainable consumption and production patterns at macro-scale: state of the art, limitations and possible ways forward

BENINI LORENZO; DEWULF JO; SALA SERENELLA
Fonte: European Society for Ecological Economics Publicador: European Society for Ecological Economics
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Sustainable consumption and production (SCP) is intended by many to be a holistic approach aiming towards minimization of negative environmental impacts from the production-consumption systems in society. The way environmental impacts of SCP patterns are assessed at macro-scale has many different operational declinations which build on different theoretical backgrounds, accounting frameworks, as well as methodologies and underlying data. The mainstream methodologies which are currently applied to quantify the emissions and resources associated to societies’ SCP can be broadly grouped in three classes: environmentally extended input-output tables, process-based life cycle assessment and hybrid methods. Subsequently, accounting protocols such as ecological footprint and footprint families in general, pressure indicators and life-cycle impact assessment methods, are applied to these inventories with the aim of assessing the environmental pressures/impacts onto the environment. In this paper an overview of these techniques is provided along with advantages and drawbacks of each methodology.; JRC.H.8-Sustainability Assessment

‣ Continuous and long-term measurements of reflectance and sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence by using novel automated field spectroscopy systems

COGLIATI Sergio; ROSSINI Micol; JULITTA Tommaso; MERONI MICHELE; SCHICKLING Anke; BURKARF A; PINTO Francisco; RASCHER Uwe; COLOMBO Roberto
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
In this paper we present novel automated field spectroradiometers for collecting unattended, continuous and long-term measurements of plant canopies and, more in general, of Earth’s ecosystems. These systems simultaneously collect high and ultra-high resolution spectra in the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) domain employing two spectrometers: i) the first covers the spectral range 400-1000 nm with a 1.0 nm spectral resolution; ii) the second provides a sub-nanometer spectral resolution within the 700-800 nm spectral range. The data collected by the first spectrometer allow retrieval of VNIR reflectance, while the higher spectral resolution data from the second device permit estimation of vegetation Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) in the O2-A band. The instruments are constructed by assembling commercial and on-the-shelf optical optoelectronic devices to facilitate reproduction of the instrument for promoting measurements over different ecosystems. The instrument’s optical design, data collection and processing, laboratory and field calibration methods are reported and discussed. The high spectral resolution and the rigorous calibration methods enable accurate estimation of SIF in physical units by exploiting almost the same retrieval concept as that of the European Space Agency FLuorescence EXplorer mission. Reliability of the radiance...

‣ Assessing land cover changes in the Brazilian Cerrado between 1990 and 2010 using a remote sensing sampling approach

GRECCHI ROSANA; BEUCHLE Rene'; SHIMABUKURO Yosio; SANO Edson; ACHARD Frederic
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
We present a remote sensing sampling approach to assess land cover changes between years 1990 and 2010 for the Cerrado biome. Despite the fact that natural vegetation cover of this biome has been heavily converted into agricultural lands over the past decades, there is still a lack of detailed and historical information about vegetation cover changes at the biome scale. The sampling design and image processing techniques were developed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Tropical Ecosystem Environment Observation by Satellite (TREES-3) project. A set of 175 regularly distributed sample units (with10 km x 10 km size) located at every full degree confluence point of latitude and longitude were assessed. For each sample unit, (E)TM Landsat images from three target years (1990, 2000 and 2010) were selected, pre-processed, segmented and classified into five land cover classes (Tree Cover - TC, Tree Cover Mosaic - TCM, Other Wooded Land - OWL, Other Land Cover - OLC and Water -W). The results showed that the Cerrado had a net loss of natural vegetation (TC + OWL) of about 12 million hectares between 1990 and 2010, or an average rate of change of -0.6% y-1. However, the rates of change decreased from the first (1990-2000) to the second (2000-2010) decade. By 2010...

‣ Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

DE SY Veronique; HEROLD Martin; ACHARD Frederic; BEUCHLE Rene'; CLEVERS Jan; LINDQUIST Eriik; VERCHOT Louis
Fonte: IOP PUBLISHING LTD Publicador: IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforestation drivers in a systematic manner. National-level quantitative spatially explicit information on drivers is often lacking. This study quantifies proximate drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America based on remote sensing time series in a systematic, spatially explicit manner. Deforestation areas were derived from the 2010 global remote sensing survey of the FAO Forest Resource Assessment. To assess proximate drivers, land use following deforestation was assigned by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. To estimate gross carbon losses from deforestation, default Tier 1 biomass levels per country and eco-zone were used. Our findings contribute to the understanding of drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America, and are comparable at the national, regional and continental level. In addition, they support the development of national REDD+ interventions and forest monitoring systems...

‣ Testing a geographical information system for damage and evacuation assessment during an effusive volcanic crisis

LATUTRIE Ben; ANDREDAKIS Ioannis; DE GROEVE Tom; HARRIS Andrew; LANGLOIS E.; VAN WYK DE VRIES B.; SAUBIN E.; BILOTTA G.; CAPPELLO A; CRISCI G.m.; D'AMBROSIO D.; DEL NEGRO C.; FAVALLI M.; FUJITA E.; IOVINE G.; KELFOUN K.; RONGO R.; SPATARO W. W.; TARQUINI
Fonte: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior Publicador: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Using two hypothetical effusive events in the Chaıˆne des Puys (Auvergne, France), we tested two geographical information systems (GISs) set up to allow loss assessment during an effusive crisis. The first was a local system that drew on all immediately available data for population, and use, communications, utility and building type. The second was an experimental add-on to the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) global warning system maintained by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) that draws information from open-access global data. After defining lava-flow model source terms (vent location, effusion rate, lava chemistry, temperature, crystallinity and vesicularity), we ran all available lava-flow emplacement models to produce a projection for the likelihood of impact for all pixels within the GIS. Next, inundation maps and damage reports for impacted zones were produced, with those produced by both the local system and by GDACS being in good agreement. The exercise identified several shortcomings of the systems, but also indicated that the generation of a GDACS-type global response system for effusive crises that uses rapid-response model projections for lava inundation driven by realtime satellite hotspot detection – and open-access datasets – is within the current capabilities of the community.; JRC.G.2-Global security and crisis management

‣ Generalized variance ratio tests in the presence of statistical dependence.

NANKERVIS John C; KOUGOULIS PERIKLIS; COAKLEY Jerry
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
This article extends and generalizes the variance-ratio (VR) statistic by employing an estimator of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the sample autocorrelations. The estimator is consistent under the null for general classes of innovations exhibiting statistical dependence including exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity and non-martingale difference sequence processes. Monte Carlo experiments show that our generalized test statistics have good finite sample size and superior power properties to other recently developed VR versions. In an application to two major US stock indices, our new generalized VR tests provide stronger rejections of the null than do competing VR tests.; JRC.G.1-Financial and Economic Analysis

‣ Simulating mixtures of multivariate data with fixed cluster overlap in FSDA library

RIANI Marco; CERIOLI Andrea; PERROTTA Domenico; TORTI Francesca
Fonte: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG Publicador: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
We extend the capabilities of MixSim, a framework which is useful for evaluating the performance of clustering algorithms, on the basis of measures of agreement between data partitioning and flexible generation methods for data, outliers and noise. The peculiarity of the method is that data are simulated from normal mixture distributions on the basis of pre-specified synthesis statistics on an overlap measure, defined as sum of pairwise misclassification probabilities. We provide new tools which enable us to control additional overlapping statistics and departures from homogeneity and sphericity among groups. The output of this extension is a more flexible framework for generation of data to better address modern robust clustering scenarios. We also study the properties and the implications that this new way of simulating clustering data entails in terms of coverage of space, goodness of fit to theoretical distributions, and degree of convergence to nominal values. We demonstrate the new features using our MATLAB implementation that we have integrated in the FSDA toolbox for MATLAB. With MixSim, FSDA now integrates in the same environment state of the art robust clustering algorithms and principled routines for their evaluation and calibration. A spin off of our work is a general complex routine...

‣ Numerical Simulations in Support of the Blast Actuator Development Part II

VALSAMOS GEORGIOS; LARCHER MARTIN; SOLOMOS George
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
The development of the blast actuator experimental device is now entering the second phase, where reinforced concrete beams are used as specimens. This demanding phase needs a lot of support from numerical simulation to both predict and resolve possible failures and to validate the test results. The current report presents the comparison between the experimental and numerical results, focusing on the justification of the appearing discrepancies. Moreover, interesting information, that can ameliorate the final configuration of the apparatus, is extracted after the interpretation of the numerical results.; JRC.G.4-European laboratory for structural assessment

‣ Multi-model inference for improved estimation of growth in the longnose spurdog Squalus blainville

KOUSTENI Vassiliki; DAMALAS DIMITRIOS; MEGALOFONOU Persefoni
Fonte: HCMR - Hellenic Center for Marine Research Publicador: HCMR - Hellenic Center for Marine Research
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
In age and growth studies, many species seem to follow a different growth trajectory than the traditionally applied von Bertalanffy growth model (VBGM). To test a methodology for improving growth modeling in poorly studied chondrichthyans, 568 longnose spurdogs of Mediterranean origin were aged. A set of seven growth models were fitted to the obtained age-length data. Comparisons in growth model accuracy based on the Akaike Information Criterion allowed the assessment of the best model. In the case that no model fitted the data correctly, a multi-model inference (MMI) was carried out based on model averaging. The results provided evidence that the growth parameters inferred with the VBGM should be used with caution.; JRC.G.3-Maritime affairs

‣ Physical Attacks against the Lack of Perfect Forward Secrecy in DECT Encrypted Communications and Possible Countermeasures

COISEL IWEN; SANCHEZ MARTIN JOSE IGNACIO; SHAW David
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) is a world-wide wireless standard sustained by ETSI and widely used in cordless telephony. Whilst domestic DECT cordless phones were primarily designed to be used in connection with the Public Switched Telephone Network, their presence in Unified Communications systems has become more and more common given their reliability, flexibility and interoperability. The DECT protocol foresees the usage of authentication and encryption in order to protect the privacy of the voice communications. Unfortunately, the cryptographic mechanisms foreseen by the standard do not provide support for forward secrecy. As a consequence, the compromise of the long-term secret cryptographic key leads to the decryption of any previous, present and future encrypted communication. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate experimentally a new physical attack, able to recover the long-term cryptographic key from the memory of DECT devices and use it to decrypt voice communications previously intercepted in encrypted form. In order to mitigate this threat to the privacy of the DECT communications, we propose a set of countermeasures and proposals for modifications of the standard to provide forward secrecy in the communications.; JRC.G.6-Digital Citizen Security

‣ Assessment of dynamic mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete beams using a Blast Simulator

PERONI MARCO; SOLOMOS George; CAVERZAN ALESSIO; LARCHER MARTIN; VALSAMOS GEORGIOS
Fonte: EPJ Web of Conferences Publicador: EPJ Web of Conferences
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Critical infrastructures may become the target of terrorist bombing attacks or may have to withstand explosive loads due to accidents. The impulsive load connected to explosions is delivered to the structure in a few milliseconds forcing it to respond or fail in a peculiar mode. With reference to the above scientific framework this work presents an innovative apparatus designed and developed at the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment to reproduce a blast pressure history without using explosives. This apparatus is practically a hybrid nitrogen-spring-driven actuator that accelerates masses of up to 100 kg to a maximum velocity of about 25 m/s that impact against the tested structure. The pressure-load history applied to the structure is modulated and reshaped using appropriate layers of elastic soft materials (such as polymeric foams) placed between the specimen and the impacting masses. Specific instrumentation has extensively been utilised to investigate the blast simulator performance and to precisely measure the pressure loads applied to the specimen. A series of tests on real scale reinforced concrete beams/columns (250x250x2200 mm) has been performed to efficiently assess the performance and potentiality of the new blast simulator. Results are under evaluation. In addition to the experimental work...

‣ Seismic strengthening of RC frames with shear walls

TSIONIS Georgios; TAUCER Fabio; PINTO VIEIRA Artur
Fonte: University of Porto Publicador: University of Porto
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: CD-ROM
Português
Experimental testing and numerical analyses of elements and structures have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of shear walls for the seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete frame buildings. The paper presents a literature review and discusses the effect of the most important parameters. It is shown that shear walls improve the global response of existing buildings in terms of stiffness, strength and displacement demand and that their effectiveness is increased for walls with larger dimensions. The design and detailing of the dowels and anchorage bars used for the connection between new and existing elements is a critical issue. The results available in literature, complemented by parametric numerical analyses, may provide the basis for the development of design guidelines with emphasis on strength and stiffness characteristics and on detailing of the connections.; JRC.G.4-European laboratory for structural assessment

‣ STREST – Report on lessons learned from recent catastrophic events: WP2 – State-of-the-art and lessons learned

KRAUSMANN Elisabeth
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
Critical infrastructures are the backbone of modern society and provide many essential goods and services. Recently, natural events impacting critical infrastructures have highlighted the vulnerability of these infrastructures to natural hazards. They have also revealed the risk of cascading failures with potentially major and extended societal and economic consequences. This reports provides case-study descriptions of past incidents to shed light on the vulnerability of critical infrastructures to selected natural hazards. More specifically, incidents at refineries, large dams, hydrocarbon pipelines, natural gas storage and distribution, ports and industrial districts were analysed to better understand impact dynamics, system weaknesses, potential consequences and contributing factors. Based on the case histories and experience from similar incidents, lessons learned were derived for 1) system weaknesses and critical components, 2) potential for propagation, 3) consequence severity and extent and 4) protection systems and measures.; JRC.G.4-European laboratory for structural assessment

‣ Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries

CHAUDRON STEPHANE; LAGAE KAAT
Fonte: UK Council for Child Internet Safety Publicador: UK Council for Child Internet Safety
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
Português
Key findings of the JRC's research Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries for the Research Highlights series on behalf of the Evidence Group (EG) of the UK Council on Child Internet Safety; JRC.G.6-Digital Citizen Security